Calcium

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Posted on 8th April 2010 by Swapnil Waikar in General

Functions of Calcium

  • Every plant needs calcium to grow.
  • Once fixed, calcium is not mobile in the plant. It is an important constituent of cell walls and can only be supplied in the xylem sap. Thus, if the plant runs out of a supply of calcium, it cannot remobilize calcium from older tissues.
  • If transpiration is reduced for any reason, the calcium supply to growing tissues will rapidly become inadequate.

Benefits of Calcium
Calcium plays a very important role in plant growth and nutrition, as well as in cell wall deposition.

Primary roles of calcium:

  • As a soil amendment, calcium helps to maintain chemical balance in the soil, reduces soil salinity, and improves water penetration.
  • Calcium plays a critical metabolic role in carbohydrate removal.
  • Calcium neutralizes cell acids.

Factors Affecting Calcium Availability
Calcium is found in many minerals in soil, but is relatively insoluble in this state. Calcium is not considered a leachable nutrient. Many soils will contain high levels of insoluble calcium such as calcium carbonate, but crops grown in these soils will often show a calcium deficiency.

High levels of other cations such as magnesium, ammonium, iron, aluminum and especially potassium, will reduce the calcium uptake in some crops. A common misconception is that if the pH is high, adequate calcium is present. This is not always true.

Symptoms of calcium deficiency:

  • Necrosis at the tips and margins of young leaves,
  • Bulb and fruit abnormalities,
  • Deformation of affected leaves,
  • Highly branched, short, brown root systems,
  • Severe, stunted growth, and
  • General chlorosis.

Using Calcium in a Fertility Program
When calcium is needed, it is not necessary to apply a material such as limestone that will affect the pH level in the soil. In today’s crop production, soluble calcium can be applied through an irrigation system when needed and in the amounts that are needed. Because calcium does not relocate in the plant, a soluble source of calcium applied throughout the growing season is preferred, especially in vegetables and other fast growing crops.

Nanosolutions uses Calcium extrated from plants in potentise form in all its products.

Action on Stomas with the help of Amino Acids

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Posted on 8th April 2010 by Swapnil Waikar in General

Stomas are the cellular structures that control the hydric balance of the plant, the macro and micronutrient absorption and the absorption of gases. The opening of the stomas is controlled by both external factors (light, humidity, temperature and salt concentration) and internal factors (amino acids concentration, abcisic acid etc.).

The Stomas are closed when light and humidity are low & temperature and salt concentration are high, when stomas are closed photosynthesis and transpiration are reduced (low absorption of macro & micronutrients) and respiration is increased (Carbohydrate destruction) In this case the metabolic balance of the plant is negative. Catabolism is higher than anabolism. This implies slow metabolism and stops the plant growth. L-glutamic acid acts as a cytoplasm osmotic agent of the “guard cells”. Thus favouring the opening of the stomas.

Effect Of Amino Acids On Plants

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Posted on 8th April 2010 by Swapnil Waikar in General

Agriculture production is a very intensive business and is related to better quality and better yield leading to better profitability. Every Farmers dreams to achieve this goal. However to achieve this goal with advancement of technology, use of fertilizer and pesticides is not adequate. Now is the time to look at Bioenergetics and Biochemical aspects of plants, to achieve the goals of Farmers. Every plant like any organism needs certain components for growth over and above soil, sun, rain and air. The basic component of living cells is Proteins, with building block material, Amino Acids. Proteins are formed by sequence of Amino Acids. Plants synthesize Amino Acids from the Primary elements, the Carbon and Oxygen obtained from air, Hydrogen from water in the soil, forming Carbon Hydrate by means of photosynthesis and combining it with the Nitrogen which the plants obtain from the soil, leading to synthesis of amino acids, by collateral metabolic pathways. Only L-Amino Acids are part of these Proteins and have metabolic activity. The requirement of amino acids in essential quantities is well known as a means to increase yield and overall quality of crops. The application of amino acids for foliar use is based on its requirement by plants in general and at critical stages of growth in particular. Plants absorb Amino Acids through Stomas and is proportionate to environment temperature. Amino Acids are fundamental ingredients in the process of Protein Synthesis. About 20 important Amino Acids are involved in the process of each function. Studies have proved that Amino Acids can directly or indirectly influence the physiological activities of the plant. Amino Acids are also supplied to plant by incorporating them into the soil. It helps in improving the microflora of the soil thereby facilitating the assimilation of nutrients. Foliar Nutrition in the form of Protein Hydrolysate (Known as Amino Acids Liquid) and foliar spray provide readymade building blocks for Protein synthesis.

Silicon and plant growth

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Posted on 8th April 2010 by Swapnil Waikar in General

Crops differ considerably in the amount of silicon they take up, but little systematic work has been done on the normal level of silicon in different plants. Grasses and cereals normally have over 1% of SiO, in their dry matter, and most dicotyledons under 1%.

Silica content of grasses varied from 1-10% of the dry matter, with contents of between 2-5% being common, while most other plants had silica contents below 1% and many below 0-2%. Cereal straw commonly contains between 10 and 15 kg of silicon per ton while clover, beans and root crops remove only a few kilo- grams per hectare.
Plant roots take up their silica as silicic acid. It is possible that the amount taken up by most germanous crops is equal to the amount of silicic acid present in the water the roots absorb, so that the greater the amount of water transpired, the greater their uptake of silica. Dicotyledonous crops on the other hand take up much less silica than is present in the water their roots take up, often only about 5%.

But the validity of these generalizations is uncertain for uptake both by the germanous crops and the dicots appears to be a metabolic process since enzyme inhibitors, such as sodium azide and di-nitro-phenol, will cause a reduction in silica uptake without causing a corresponding reduction in respiration. Many varieties of rice and barley will also take up more silica than is carried to the roots by mass flow and dicots, which take up much less silica than comes to the roots by this process, may have a concentration of silica in their xylem sap that is appreciably greater than in the soil solution
An adequate supply of silica is essential if grasses and cereals are to give a good yield, for it increases the strength and rigidity of their cells. Thus, it helps rice leaves to have a upright habit under conditions of high nitrogen manure, which may increase the rate of photosynthesis per unit area of land. It increases the oxidizing power at the surface of rice roots, probably by increasing the rigidity of the walls of the aerenchyma or gas channels within the plant. It is also essential for a good seed set in some varieties of rice, but its mode of action is still unknown.

Silica also increases the tolerance of some crops to high levels of available soil manganese for reasons that are not fully understood, but it prevents the manganese in the leaf becoming concentrated in a number of spots, which then become necrotic and in the case of  rice allows a greater oxygen supply to the root surface, ensuring a more rapid oxidation of manganese within or just outside the root.
An adequate supply of silica to the cereals will thicken those cell walls on which it is deposited, and this may have a number of desirable consequences. An adequate silica supply reduces the tendency of a cereal to wilt during the initial stages of drought, probably because of the reduced permeability to water or water vapour of the walls of the leaf epidermal cells. There is also evidence that plants adequately supplied with silica have increased resistance to some pests and diseases. Thus, an adequate silica content may increase the resistance of some cereals to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminiv) and of rice to blast (Pyricularica oryzae), and to some stem borers, such as Chilo suppressalis, of sorghum to central shoot fly (Atheraqone indica) and wheat to hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor).

The use of silica fertilisers, in the form of either soluble silicates, or of calcium silicate slags is still very restricted.

Soluble silica, which in addition to increasing the pH of the soil are also said to increase the silicic acid concentration in the soil solution. Silicates also increase the yield and sugar content in the juice of sugar-cane growing on soils low in soluble silica. Silicate fertilisers can, however, increase crop yields for quite other reasons, for they increase the availability of soil phosphate to the crop, presumably by displacing phosphate absorbed on sesquioxide surfaces.

Neem

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Posted on 11th March 2010 by Swapnil Waikar in Agricultural | General

Gudi Padwa is celebrated as a start of New Year for Maharashtrians. It’s a first day of Chaitra month on marathi calendar. It is one of the Muhurt from the Sade-Teen-Muharat, which is considered a very auspicious in general to start a new activity. Hence, on this day we at Nanosolutions decided to go online and start a interactive website having information about our product range, online shop and Blog. Where we all can share our comments and discuss on various issues related to agriculture, veterinary and work towards uplifting the under developed parts in India and across the world with all your support and help.

Let me share a short story with you all. This was quite few years back, I used to think, why Neem leaves are only used and why no other leaves in Gudi, and then my study for neem started. Then I found out some interesting things about it. Today in our products we use neem in its potentate form. Well let me share what my parents to tell me, the use of neem in Gudi. Well after Gudi Padwa summer starts and some diseases like measles, small pox, chicken pox, prickly heat disorders, and sweat rashes. Here neem leaves and bark does wonders on these diseases, working as antiseptic, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal properties. Hence people started worshiping neem and thanked God for its wonderful creation.

Hence, we too at Nanosolutions decided to use neem to save our plants from various diseases and viral infections.

Travelling across country I have found many farmers are using neem cakes and these cakes is then mixed in soil as it soil amendment. They say that this neem helps in growing healthier plants. It also helps in keeping nitrogen in soil. Neem also helps in keeping soil loose. Insects pests usually refuse to eat any plant covered with Neem oil. Its other derivatives include insect repellent and a reducer of an insect ability to reproduce. Neem oil can also provide protection against fungal diseases. Spray of Neem oil on plants prevents the outbreak of Powdery Mildew disease quite effectively and in some cases better than any commercial product. Neem oil is effective in controlling more than 200 species of insects pests reported by various researchers around the world and no other plant or synthetic substance has such a diverse action on insects.

Neem is useful for skin care such as acne, and keeping skin elasticity. It is used for preparing cosmetics (soap, shampoo, balms, and creams). Skin problems in general: dry skin, wrinkles, dandruff, itchy scalp as well as other conditions can be effectively resolved by the use of soaps, lotions, and creams, containing Neem leaf extracts and oil. Neem has shown an almost magical effect on chronic skin conditions that often fail to respond with classical medical treatments. Extracts of the bark and twigs have been using to treat fevers, thirst, sickness, and vomiting. Extracts of Neem had recently been patented by US companies. However, the FDA has not approved Neem extracts as an acceptable compound in medicine; Neem is manufactured into many health and beauty care products from the leaves, oils, and extracts of the tree.